Excavated from site 36LA8
Washington Boro Human Effigy Pot

Susquehannock women made elaborate pottery extracted from rich red clay banks along the Susquehannock River. The vessels are characterized by high collars, elongated necks, rounded bottoms, shell-temper, and various geometric incised patterns during the time period between 1600 and 1625 A.D. The human face effigy is linked to Iroquoian religious iconology on decorative pots usually deposited as a grave offering. 

From collection of Gerald B. Fenstermaker
Masquettes

Masquettes were carved steatite (soapstone) to protect the wearer from both spiritual evils or physical dangers. Many masquettes were shaped as human faces, turtles, wolves or bears and found along the various village sites of Lancaster County. Many masquettes had either drilled holes or knobs from which they could be suspended on necklaces. The back of the artifact had a depression where tobacco or a sacred herb could be stored. 

Prehistoric Lithic Material
Jasper Projectile Points

Various jasper stone projectile points and knives were knapped into very sharp and efficient spears, knives, scrapers, perforators, and other stone chipped tools. The molecular arrangement, especially of heated japer, caused a sharp linear arrangement when struck (knapped) with another hard stone to produce a clean sharp edge. Many large broad-bladed forms such as Susquehanna, Perkiomen and Lehigh broad points are associated with the Terminal Archaic period of 1800-1000 B.C into the Transitional Period.

Lower Susquehanna River Valley
Gorget Pendant

A drilled stone pendant worn about the throat or neck (gorget is derived from the word “gorge” or throat) that had special meaning to the wearer. Most gorgets found locally in the Lower Susquehanna River Valley are made from slate, such as Peach Bottom slate, and have one to two holes drilled through the stone material. An interesting observation is that some gorgets have incised markings in the form of cross-hatching or tally marks around the edges. What these markings mean is lost to history.

York Friends Meeting House
Chamber Pot

Found in an excavated privy on the grounds of the York Friends Meeting House (1766) in downtown York, Pennsylvania. In 2016, the Chapter 28 archaeology team uncovered numerous historic artifacts such as bottles, pottery, old shoes, drinking vessels, etc. This chamber pot, manufactured in England,  is clear lead-glazed earthenware with a cream-colored body and dates from 1762 to 1820. The chamber pot was a sturdy deep bowl-shaped vessel with a handle used as a portable toilet, usually kept in the bedroom or “chambers.”

York Friends Meeting House
Lustreware Pitcher

Lusterware is a porcelain clay body with a metallic glaze that produces an iridescent effect on pottery imported from Stratford, England. This pitcher found at the bottom of a privy of York Friends Meeting House was likely part of a creamer or tea set. Popular in the early 1800s, the item suggests the owner had some wealth;  it would be unusual to find this coveted ware in a Quaker household of 1766. This artifact would be classified “out of cultural context” given the date, historic location, and cultural identity of the known inhabitants. 

Lower Susquehanna Archaeological Society

Society for Pennsylvania Archaeology / Chapter 28

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© 2020 Lower Susquehanna Archaeological Society / SPA 28

Paul Nevin : President : email

Debbie Saylor :Vice President : email

Judy Englert : Secretary/Treasurer : email

Inquiries : info@spa28.org

Chapter 28 Meetings:

Blue Rock Heritage Center

2251 River Road

Washington Boro, PA 17582

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